Ford Foundation Building, New York, Kevin Roche and John Dinkeloo, architects, Warren Platner, interior designer, Dan Kiley, landscape architect, 1967,
The Ford Foundation building, a masterwork of collaboration, focuses on a multilevel landscape atrium, Kitchen decorating ideas a void that takes up 50 percent of the building’s volume. This giant “main room is covered by a skylight and the massive volume is proportioned to the human scale by the use of terraced landscaping and trees and foliage, helping to divide the space into a number of subrooms and spaces. These smaller “rooms allow for a variety of zones of privacy.
Rimini Convention Center, designed by GMP Studio, 2001, Rimini, Italy. The interior court provides a welcome change with the use of texture (through materials including water) and movement (rippling of water in the reflecting pool). Here the contrasting experience of the covered yet open at the side walkway, and the walled yet open to the sky center court exemplifies spatial variation. These design elements help to enhance an intentional and varied experience.
Paley Park, New York, Robert Zion, landscape architect, Zion and Breen, in association with Albert Preston Moore, 1966. An urban “living room without a roof, Paley Park provides intentional sound stimulation through the cascade of the waterfall which helps to baffle the noise of the nearby busy street while also providing visual stimulation. The trees and foliage help to screen the space from the harshness of the adjoining urban fabric and the hustle and bustle of midtown Manhattan emotion, perception, communication, etc.; the branch of science that deals with the (human or animal) mind as an entity and in its relationship to the body and to the environmental or social context, based on observation of the behaviour of individuals or groups of individuals in particular (ordinary or experimentally controlled) circumstances.23
Psychology’s foundational breakthrough was to establish that the internal workings of the mind could be investigated with the same depth and rigor that physiology had already established for purely physical bodily processes. The mind, for centuries thought explicable only in terms of philosophy, became a valid ground for critical investigation, subject to its own discoverable laws.24 This assumption and the subsequent findings were revolutionary, and today it is not easy to appreciate the significance of this breakthrough in the context of the mid-nineteenth century. Since the turn of that century, physiology and biology had evolved into respected sciences that offered rational explanations for the life processes of animals and humans, but psychology would lag behind by at least half a century.
Thomas Huxley’s 1879 description of psychology shows that the concept was so fresh it still had to be explained to a skeptical audience and defended as a legitimate endeavor:
Psychology is a part of the science of life or biology, which differs from the other branches of that science, merely in so far as it deals with the psychical, instead of the physical, phenomena of life.
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