versity to provide consulting services for $60,000 in valuable American currency—a sum that would be increased to $110,000 the following year.21 According to the contract, Wayne State University would provide resident consultants to Belgrade, who would be supplemented by on-demand consulting services from the transportation consulting firm Alan M. Voorhees and Associates, relating to the software package that would be installed on an IBM 360 (model 40). The American-Yugoslav Project and the Division of Inter-national Urban Studies at Wayne State University would also provide limited consulting help.22
Yugoslavia was not the only socialist state to focus its planning efforts on transportation and to seek to master new planning methodologies, especially cybernetics. As Elke Beyer has pointed out, at about the same time, planners in the GDR and the Soviet Union invested considerable resources into research on traffic and communications and were attracted to cybernetics, which had previously been denounced as bourgeois. They too would turn to the idea of secondary centers to deal with urban congestion, by “steering short-term and long-term population movements in order to gain control of the urbanization process”—a strategy that would be adopted in Belgrade’s 1972 master plan.23 These parallels are all the more striking in that planners in Yugoslavia made no reference to research in the Eastern Bloc in the preparation for the master plan—either they were not aware of this work, or, as is more likely, it was not a politically useful association to make.
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The study was conceived both to train urban planners at the Town Planning Institute and to produce usable results that could be implemented as part of the new master plan. The consultants quickly concluded that the established methodology would have to be modified to accommodate the lack of training of the Town Planning Institute’s employees. They formulated a five-cycle process, in which their participation would be limited to the first three cycles, which aimed at the production of a master plan draft. The fourth cycle would be devoted to fine-tuning this draft and developing sector plans, and the fifth was the implementation of the plan, along with an ongoing process of continuous evaluation and revision as Belgrade’s needs and problems evolved over the years.24
The first cycle was largely pedagogical in nature. Planners at the institute formulated fifteen different “sketches” representing different land-use patterns.
Urban planners then participated in a discussion of the different alternatives, thus producing a qualitative evaluation of them on a number of criteria, with a heavy emphasis on transportation. This included the relationship of work and housing areas, the existence of a multilevel road network, the location of pub-lic transportation terminals, the relationship between systems, the location of key infrastructure, use of the river for public transport, the highway system, and the rail network concept. Two alternatives that were described as repre-senting different extremes were then subjected to an actual computer-based evaluation to project their long-term implications for the city’s development, based on the interaction between land use and transportation.25
In the second cycle, the use of pure computer modeling was once again set aside due to the unreliability of the data that the Town Planning Institute had collected in order to prepare the master plan. Instead, a “building-block system” was innovated to evaluate the suitability of each alternative according to specific criteria. To do this, four alternative spatial patterns were distilled from the fifteen sketches, representing distinctive models for Belgrade’s future growth (linear, concentric, and radial models and a model of secondary ag-glomerations), and a land-use pattern was designed for each one. Then these patterns were divided up into a grid, and the attributes of each square in the grid were quantified. The master plan team was divided into different work-ing groups, each one assigned to a different sector within the city, their task to develop a list of objectives for that sector. Working groups were formed to address eight different sectors: the natural environment, open space, and rec-reation; economics; sociology; housing; industrial location; commercial cen-ters; infrastructure; and transportation. With the aid of the building-block system, the different alternatives were then evaluated in terms of how they met the objectives for each of the sectors. In addition, the alternatives under-went transportation-model tests, as consultants felt that the data pertaining to this sector was usable. None of the other sectors was subjected to computer modeling.26